Micro Teaching| Definition Skills involved in micro Teaching


Micro Teaching| Definition Skills involved in micro Teaching

Teaching behaviour refers to the behaviour demonstrated by a teacher at the time

of carrying out teaching activities in the classroom. A teacher’s behaviour is exhibited

through skills used by him or her in a classroom. These skills are known as ‘teaching skills’.

Microteaching is a brilliant method for developing aptitude and self-confidence

to experience a variety of lecturing/tutoring approaches, and become skilled at

providing constructive feedback. It offers instructors with an opportunity to safely

let themselves be scrutinized by a small group audience. They can also scrutinize

and comment on other people’s performances. In order to prepare teachers,

microteaching trainings are supported by video-recordings. In a sheltered atmosphere

of friends and colleagues, it is easy for teachers to practice what they usually do

with their students and get expected positive feedback. A microteaching session is

an opportunity to take on new teaching and learning strategies, and a student learns

about their requirements and expectations. It facilitates learning from others and

enriches one’s own teaching methods.

Educationists and psychologists have always strived to improve the teaching

techniques. Various models have been developed to provide teachers with a wide

range of approaches for creating an environment of interactive learning. An intelligent

use of these approaches will allow teachers to understand better the students’ learning

needs, improvise the different learning styles, and design appropriate curriculum and

educational activities. The models of teaching are, in fact, implementation of practical

problems and looking for their solutions as student and teachers work together in a

classroom. These are scientific and systematic approaches. Some of these models

are simple to use but difficult to master while some serve broad purposes and others

target particular goals. In this unit, you will learn about the concept of microteaching,

the skills involved in microteaching, nature and elements of teaching models, Robert’s

Glaser’s model of teaching and William Glasser’s classroom meeting model. You

will also learn about the use of information-processing models promoted by cognitive

psychologists and simulated teaching.


After going through this unit, you will be able to:

 Discuss the concept of microteaching

 Analyse the skills involved in microteaching

 Assess the concept, types, uses and limitations of models of teaching

 Discuss the various theories of information-processing models

 Explain the types, advantages and disadvantages of simulated teaching


A trainee teacher is bewildered by the complexity of teaching a large class of students

and finds it very difficult to learn all the aspects of teaching at the same time. It is

easier for him to practice and learn one skill of teaching at a time. This problem was

resolved by a process of training teachers in practical teaching. It came to be known

as Microteaching. Microteaching is an excellent way of helping teachers and student-

teachers to understand the process of teaching and learning better. It provides

constructive feedback which helps teachers scrutinize their own teaching in order to

discover their strengths and weaknesses. As a tool for teacher preparation,

microteaching trains teaching behaviours and skills in small group settings, aided by

video-recordings. Microteaching is a kind of real teaching reduced in time, number

of students and range of activities. It provides teachers with ample opportunities to

explore and reflect on their own and others’ teaching styles and to acquire new

teaching techniques.

The history of microteaching goes back to the mid-1960s, when Dwight Allen

and his colleagues from the Stanford University developed a training programme.

This programme was aimed at improving verbal and non-verbal skills and general

performance of teachers. The Stanford model had a three-step approach using

actual students as authentic audience. The model was first applied to the teaching of

science, but later it was introduced to language teaching. A very similar model called

Instructional Skills Workshop (ISW) was developed in Canada during the early 1970s.

It was a training support programme for college and institute faculty. Both these

models were designed to enhance teaching and promote open collegial discussion

about teaching performance.

Definitions of Micro teaching

Microteaching had been defined in different ways as follows:

 D. W. Allen (1966): Microteaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in

class size and time.

 R. N. Bush (1968): Micro teaching is a teacher education technique, which

allow teachers to apply clearly defined teaching skills in carefully prepared

lessons, in a planned series of 5–10 minute encounters with a small group of

real students, often with an opportunity to observe the result on video tape.

 Clift and others (1976): Micro teaching is a teacher training procedure which

reduces the teaching situation to a simple and more controlled encounter

achieved by limiting the practice of teaching to a specific skill and reducing

teaching time and class size.

 L. C. Singh (1977): Micro teaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in

which a teacher teaches a small unit to a group of five students for a short

period of five 5–20 minutes. Such a situation offers a helpful setting for an

experienced or inexperienced teacher to acquire new teaching skills and refine

old ones.

 N. K. Jangira and Ajit Singh (1982): Micro teaching is a training setting

for the learning teacher, where complexities of the normal classroom teaching

are reduced by: practising one component skill at a time, limiting the content

to a single concept, reducing the size to 5–10 students, and reducing the

duration of lesson to 5–10 minutes.

Characteristics of Micro teaching

The characteristics of micro teaching are as follows:

 Micro teaching is an experiment in the field of teacher education, which has

been incorporated in the practice teaching schedule.

 Micro teaching is a highly individualized training device.

 It is a student teaching skill training technique and not a teaching technique or


 The main objective of the micro teaching session is to provide participants

with an environment for practice-based teaching, to instil self-evaluative skills.

 Micro teaching is a scaled down teaching encounter, which reduces the

complexities of real teaching such as:

o practising one skill at a time

o reducing the class size to 5–10 students

o reducing duration of the lesson to 5–20 minutes

o limiting the content to a single concept

 Students are provided with immediate feedback that helps in improving and

motivating learning.

Assumptions of Micro teaching

Some of the important assumptions underlying the process of micro teaching are as


 Teaching is a complex process, but can be analysed into simple skills.

 Teaching skills can be practised one by one up to a level of mastery, under

specific and simplified situation.

 Appropriate feedback, if systematically given, proves very significant in

mastering each skill.

 When all skills have been mastered, they can be integrated for real classroom


 Skill training can be conveniently transferred from simulated teaching situation

to actual classroom teaching situation.

Objectives of introducing micro teaching in colleges

Duggal and Sharma have listed the following objectives of introducing micro teaching

in colleges:

 To initiate trainee teachers to analyse and develop teaching behaviour under

laboratory conditions

 To land novice teachers gradually in the real classroom after gaining enough


 To impart intensive training in the component skills of teaching to teacher

trainees at pre-service level

 To involve the academic potential of teacher trainees for providing feedback

to peers

 To lessen the workload of teacher educators with the involvement of peer


 To lessen the burden on practising schools

 To explore human resources and economy to the maximum with respect to

time, money and materials

3.2.1 Phases of Micro teaching Procedure

Micro teaching involves the following three phases as suggested by Cliff and others


(i) Knowledge acquisition phase: In this phase, the student-teacher familiarizes

himself with the component of teaching skill, which he is to practice. For this

he learns the skill, its rationale, its component behaviour and its role in the

classroom. This can be done by reading the relevant literature, observing

demonstrations, and analysing the skill. All these activities are directed to the

modelling component of micro teaching. Modelling can be defined as the mode

of presentation of the skill.

(ii) Skill acquisition phase: On the basis of the model presented, a student-

teacher plans a micro-lesson for practising the demonstrated teaching skill

and carries out micro teaching till he acquires the desired level of mastery.

This phase includes two components—feedback and micro teaching setting.

On the basis of classroom performance of the student-teacher, feedback is

provided in order to modify the classroom performance. The setting component

covers conditions like size of the micro class, duration of micro class, and

type of supervision.

(iii) Transfer phase of micro teaching: Here, the student-teacher undertakes

exercises for smoother transition from micro teaching situation to real classroom

situation. The component of this phase is integration of component teaching


3.2.2 Micro teaching Cycle

The six steps generally involved in micro teaching cycle are: (i) plan, (ii) teach,

(iii) feedback, (iv) re-plan, (v) re-teach and (vi) re-feedback. There can be variations

as per the requirement of the objective of practice session. These steps are

diagrammatically represented Figure 3.1.

 Plan: This involves  selection  of the topic and  related content  of  such a

nature, in which the use of components of the skill under practice may be

made easily and conveniently. The topic is analysed into different activities

of the teacher and the students. Activities are planned in a logical sequence

where maximum application of the components of a skill is possible.

 Teach: This involves the  attempts made  by the teacher trainee to  use

components of the skill in suitable situations, occurring in the process of

teaching. If the situation is different and not as visualized, the teacher should

modify his behaviour as per the demand of the situation in the class. The

teacher should have the courage and confidence to handle the situation arising

in the class effectively.

 Feedback: This term refers to giving information to the teacher-trainee about

his performance. The information includes strength as well as weaknesses

related to his performance. This helps the teacher-trainee to improve upon

his performance in the desired direction.

 Re-plan: The teacher-trainee re-plans his lesson, incorporating the points of

strength, and removing the points not skillfully handled in the previous attempt.

 Re-teach: This involves teaching the same group of students, if the topic is

changed, or a different group of students, if the topic is the same. This is done

to remove boredom or monotony of the student. The teacher-trainee teaches

the class with renewed courage and confidence to perform better than the

previous attempt.

(vi) Re-feedback: This is the most important component of micro teaching for

behaviour modification of teacher-trainee in each and every skill practice.

3.2.3 Indian Model of Micro teaching

After several years of research and experimentation in micro teaching, National

Council of Educational Reseach and Training (NCERT) concluded that micro teaching

can be practised effectively in India without using any hardware, since symbolic and

live modelling and verbal feedback have been found to be quite effective. Further, it

is not necessary to use school students for micro teaching; peers can act as students

which has also been found to be very effective in bringing about improvement in the

skill of teaching. NCERT has proposed the Indian model of micro teaching, which

has the following salient features:

 The mode of presentation of theory and modelling is generally done through

written material, lectures, demonstrations and discussions and not through

electronic gadgets like VCR, audio-tapes and films. Teacher educators give

model lessons on various teaching skills. However, with the increased

availability and use of video-camera, new technology in the use of CD for

modelling and feedback purposes has been suggested.

 Live observers are used to observe teaching and for providing immediate

feedback to student-teachers. Teacher educator and peers participate in

feedback sessions.

 College-based teaching practice is organized under simulated conditions. Peers

are used as students instead of real students. Training in role playing is given

to student-teachers.

 The micro teaching laboratory can function with minimum facilities according

to the available space, material and equipment.

 The duration of micro teaching cycle is:

Teach : 6 Minutes

Feedback : 6 Minutes

Re-plan : 12 Minutes

Re-teach : 6 Minutes

Re-feedback : 6 Minutes

 Two half cycle lessons are also practised instead of one full cycle. The Indian

model has been successfully tried out, and is being used in many universities

and teacher education institutions in the country.

Comparison between Micro teaching and Traditional Teaching

Micro teaching Traditional Teaching

Teaching is relatively simple. Teaching is comparatively complicated and 


The number of students is less. A class 

consists of a small group of 5–10 


The number of students is much more; a

class usually has more than 40 students.

There is provision of immediate feedback, 

which helps the teacher know his 


There is no provision of immediate 


The teaching time is 5–10 minutes. The duration of traditional teaching is 

40–45 minutes.

The student-teacher practises only one 

skill at a time.

The student-teacher practises a 

combination of skills.

In micro teaching, the role of a supervisor 

is specific and definite.

The role of a supervisor is quite vague in 

the case of traditional teaching.

The patterns of classroom interaction can 

be studied objectively.

The patterns of classroom interaction 

cannot be studied objectively.

Micro teaching is done in fully controlled 


This teaching does not take place in 

controlled conditions.

Teaching Skills through Micro teaching

We know that micro teaching is a controlled practice which makes it possible to

concentrate on a specific teaching behaviour. Competence is acquired in one skill

before proceeding to another skill. Micro teaching can be practised only after a

teacher’s behaviour has been analysed and specific skills of teaching have been

identified. A teaching skill is a set of interrelated components of teaching behaviour

for realization of specific instructional objectives (Jangira et al., 1982). Allen and

associates (1967), at Stanford University identified a set of 14 skills of teaching. In

India, B. K. Passi and associates (1974) working at the Centre for Advanced Studies

in Education at M. S. University, Baroda, identified 21 skills of teaching. Some of

the important skills of teaching have been explained below.

 Skill of stimulus variation: Skills of stimulus variation are used to bring

desirable changes of variation in the stimuli used to secure and sustain student’s

attention towards classroom activities. Some of the things a student-teacher

is trained in are the use of movement in a systematic way, use of gestures,

development of verbal and non-verbal methods of focusing children’s attention,

systematic use of pauses, and controlled use of sensory channels by switching

primary modes of communication. This skill helps to increase active

participation, enthusiasm and spirit of study.

 Skill of introducing the lesson: This skill is mainly concerned with the

establishment of rapport between teacher and students for involving students

in the lesson. The main components of this skill are utilization of previous

experience and appropriate devices, maintenance of continuity in main parts

of the introduction and relevancy of verbal and non-verbal behaviour.

 Skill of explaining: Explanation is the use of interrelated facts, concepts

with a view to develop understanding among the students towards the content

under study. In order to become an effective explainer in the classroom, the

teacher should practise more.

 Skill of reinforcement: Every responding student of the class needs social

approval of his behaviour. To satisfy this need, he is always eager to answer

each question known to him. If the teacher encourages students, their

participation in the class is maximized. The main purpose of the skill is to

increase student participation, facilitate learning, motivate the learner, modify

undesirable behaviour and develop desired behaviour.

 Skill of questioning: Questions are helpful in stimulating thinking and hence,

significantly contribute in classroom teaching. It helps a teacher in gaining

knowledge about previous awareness and entry behaviour of students, their

interest and attitude towards the subject and the topic in hand. Adequate

questioning skills may help the teacher in carrying out effective interaction

with his students, including motivation and drawing their attention towards


 Skill of lecturing: This skill is concerned with effective presentation of the

content. The teacher leaves his impression by using many techniques and

tactics through this skill. Sometimes, it is also known as communication skill.

 Skill of illustrating with examples: This skill is mainly concerned with the

selection of examples relevant to the concept so that the content under study

may be clear and understandable to students. Examples contribute significantly

in the teaching–learning process and are helpful in sustaining the attention of


 Skill of classroom management: Skill of management involves efforts made

by the teacher to compel a child to participate actively in classroom activities.

In this skill, the teacher supervises the activities of students, sets norms for

their classroom behaviour, and asks questions.

 Skill of using audio-visual aids: Audio-visual aids attract and hold attention

of students and makes teaching more interesting and effective. Use of these

aids breaks the monotony of ordinary instructions, helps in forming the right

mental images, stimulates critical thinking, and increases the power of retention.

 Skill of using blackboard: Blackboard is a very essential component of

teaching–learning process. It is a cheap device and plays a very important

role in attracting the attention of students. The skill of blackboard writing

requires neatness, appropriateness of written work, simplicity and brevity in

the points presented, and legibility.

 Skill of closure: Closure is attained when major purposes, principles and

constructs of a lesson or portion of the lesson have been learnt and the students

are able to relate new knowledge to the past. It is more than a quick summary

of the portions covered.

Some Important Skills of Micro teaching

(a) Skill of stimulus variation

The main aim of teaching is to bring a desirable change in behaviour of students. A

teacher should always try to make lessons more effective. For this, he should use

various methods and techniques. He should present multiple stimuli just to gain the

attention of students. In these stimuli, the teacher should himself function as a stimulus,

in the form of gestures, movement of the body, change in pitch of voice, change in

interaction style, pausing and sequencing of different aids of teaching. All these

aspects act as stimuli in the class. The use of these stimuli during teaching is known

as ‘skill of stimuli variation’.

Following are the main component of stimulus variation skill:

 Body movements: Body movements of the teacher play an important

role in the class. Body movements should be in balance because their

excessive use may distract students and similarly less body movement

will make the teacher look like a dull statue.

 Gesture: Gestures play a very important role in making the lesson

effective. These include facial expression like laughing, raising eyebrows,

emotions, some other gestures like movement of eyes, nodding,

movement of hands also play a significant role in drawing the attention

of students.

 Change in pitch of voice: The students feel boredom due to the

teacher’s speech at the same pitch, and they also get distracted from

the lesson being taught. Thus, the teacher should bring about a change

in his voice. Too high or too low pitch should be avoided. Important

points should be stressed by changing the pitch of voice.

 Focusing: It is very important to stress on some specific points or

events. This process of focusing includes verbal focusing, gesture

focusing and oral-gesture focusing. Verbal focusing draws the attention

of student by using and repeating certain words. Gesture focusing draws

their attention by pointing fingers at written words or pictures. In some

situations, the teacher uses both of them simultaneously.

 Change in the style of interaction: In a classroom, interaction between

students and teacher is a must otherwise the classroom environment

will become monotonous. But this interaction should be different. It can

be between a teacher and the whole class, a teacher and a student or

between students. All these types of interactions can be arranged by

teachers. A teacher should ask questions in an interactive manner so

that his class becomes more interesting and effective.

 Change in teaching aids: Different types of teaching aids should be

used by the teacher while teaching. This will maintain the concentration

of students towards the teacher. He should also use audio and visual

aids alternatively.

 Pause: The teacher should continue talking in class endlessly. There

should be regular pauses during the process of explanation in the class.

If the teacher speaks continuously, students would get bored. Hence,

pauses are important to gain continuous attention of students.

Thus, we can easily generalize that skill of stimulus variation plays a significant

role in teaching, and is utilized by the teacher to make his teaching effective as well

as interesting.

(b) Skill of explaining

Explaining concepts is very important in classroom teaching. Hence, a teacher has

to learn the skill of explaining in order to make students understand many ideas,

concepts or principles that need explanation. Explanation is nothing but a few

interrelated appropriate statements.

The skill of explanation can be developed by using the following components:

 Appropriate statement: During a lecture, the statements used should

be appropriate. The beginning statements prepare the student mentally

to receive the explanation. On the other hand, concluding statements

are made after the end of explanation. Both are important and should

be appropriate.

 Explaining links: Explaining links in the form of words and phrases

are meant for establishing continuity of statements used for explaining

a concept, phenomena or principle. Some of these are: hence, therefore,

since, because, as a result of, due to.

 Covering essential points: The explanation given for understanding

a given concept or principle should be as complete as possible. The

completeness is determined by the scope of concept or principle as

specified in the instructional objectives. It should cover all essential

points leading to a clear understanding of the desired concept or principle.

 Fluency in language: For explaining, the teacher should speak fluently.

The fluency should be such that a student may listen and understand

the ideas of the teacher easily.

 Testing the student: While explaining, questions should be put across

to students for their clarity and understanding.

Precautions for skill of explaining are as follows:

 The explanation should not include irrelevant statements.

 It should be in simple language which students can easily understand.

 It should be in a proper sequence.

 The teacher should not stammer; his language should be fluent and


 Use of inappropriate vocabulary, vague words and phrases should be


(c) Skill of reinforcement

Reinforcement denotes an event that influences the probability of a response to a

stimulus being produced under similar conditions. It belongs to the psychology of

learning. It is of two types: positive and negative. Use of positive reinforcement

contributes towards strengthening the desirable response or behaviour and use of

negative reinforcement contributes towards eliminating undesirable responses.

Following are the main components of skill of reinforcement:

 Positive verbal reinforcement: The teacher uses the accepting

statements in order to make the learning of the students permanent

such as ‘I understand what you mean’, ‘you should express yourself’.

In this way, the suggestions of student and use of encouraging language

are supported.

 Positive non-verbal reinforcement: Sometimes, the teacher uses

non-verbal cues to encourage students in the class such as smiling,

nodding, listening carefully, or writing the correct answer given by a

student on the blackboard. All these acts are positive non-verbal


 Negative verbal reinforcement: Sometimes, it is necessary to remove

some stimuli in order to make the learning permanent. Words like:

‘wrong’, ‘absurd’ or ‘I do not like your statements’ may look like criticism

to the student.

 Negative non-verbal reinforcement: On some occasions, a teacher

uses negative non-verbal reinforcements like angry glares, threat of a

slap. Such negative non-verbal reinforcements too should be avoided.

Precautions for skill of reinforcement are as follows:

 Same words or statements should not be repeated again and again. There

should be a variety of words.

 Excessive use of reinforcement should be avoided. It may remove its


 It should be used for all the students and not only for the intelligent ones.

 Appropriate words and statements should be used.

 While using reinforcement for one student, it should be kept in mind that other

student should not feel inferior because of the statement made.

(d) Skill of questioning

The process of asking questions during classroom teaching is considered to be the

most important part of teaching. It makes students more thoughtful and they become

able to understand the depth of the subject. Various aspects are studied by asking

questions. It makes the student active and alert in the ongoing process of teaching.

It also helps a teacher in gaining knowledge about previous awareness and entry

behaviour of students, their interest and attitude towards the subject, and the topic in

hand. Adequate questioning skills may help a teacher in effectively interacting with

his students.

Following are the main components of the skill of questioning:

 Quality of questions: Questions can serve the required purpose only

when they are framed with care by the teacher. So the following points

should be kept in mind while asking questions:

o Relevant: The questions asked should be relevant to the topic

being taught. Irrelevant questions may confuse the students and

hinder the process of teaching-learning.

o Clarity: The questions should be asked in a simple and clear


o Specificity: The questions asked should be specific and to the


o Grammatically correct: The framed questions should be

grammatically correct, otherwise the students will not be able to

understand them.

 Presenting questions in class: A teacher should try to ask questions

in a clear and audible voice, accent, tone and pitch. Moreover, the speed

of asking questions should not be too fast or too slow, and enough time

should be given to the students for answering.

 Involvement of all students: Questions should be addressed to all

students in a class, rather than one individual student. A teacher should

include all students for answering questions so that all of them are

attentive and alert during the class.

Behaviour of teacher: The behaviour of the teacher should be natural

while asking questions. There should be patience and sweetness in the

voice and style of asking questions.

 Prompting: When a student expresses his inability to answer a question,

the teacher can give clues to help him recall what he learnt.

In this way, proper art of asking question along with proper behaviour and

presentation can help teachers in learning and acquiring the skill of questioning for

bringing effectiveness to their classroom teaching. However, acquisition of this skill

requires a lot of practice on the part of the teacher through micro teaching.

Precautions during the use the skill of questioning are as follows:

 Questions should not be irrelevant or confusing.

 A teacher should not ask questions to a handful of students.

 The teacher should wait patiently for a student to answer until he accepts

that he does not know the answer.

 While asking questions, the teacher should show pleasant behaviour.

 He should not criticize the student, if the given answer is wrong.

(e) Skill of introducing the lesson

This skill is concerned with the art of initiating the lesson. If the lesson starts

properly, it proceeds smoothly and the teacher is successful and effective. The

utilization of previous experience and maintenance of continuity in the main parts

of introduction are the major points to remember, while using introductory skills

in teaching. Following are the main components which are utilized in the skill of


 Use of previous knowledge: One cannot teach in vacuum. So before

starting a lesson, it is essential to know the previous knowledge of students.

The new learning is thus based on previous knowledge or experience acquired

by students.

 Maintenance of continuity: Proper introduction requires continuity in ideas

presented to students. There should be a logical sequence between main

parts of the introduction. One activity by the teacher should lead the to other

related one in a chain of continuity creating the need to study the lesson.

 Objectives and aids: It is also necessary to select various teaching aids,

keeping in mind the objectives of the lesson. The student feels bored as a

result of monotonous teaching. Disinterest develops in the student. A proper

selection of audio-visual devices creates life in the introduction of the lesson

and the student begins to show interest. The teacher can use various means

like questioning, lecturing and storytelling. However, selection of the method

should be according to the maturity level of students.

 Duration of introduction: The introduction of the lesson should neither be

too long nor too short. The duration of introduction should arouse the interest

of students.

Capability of teacher: The teacher should have the capability to create

interest and motivation in students, without which they shall not show interest

in the lesson.

(f) Skill of illustration with examples

This skill is mainly concerned with the selection of examples relevant to the concept.

Examples contribute significantly in the teaching–learning process and are helpful in

sustaining the attention of students.

Components of the skill of illustration with examples:

 Use of media for examples: These examples are conveyed to the

students through media. For illustration, basically two types of media are

used: non-verbal and verbal. Non-verbal media includes flowers, models,

pictures, plant, and videos. On the other hand, when a teacher explains

everything verbally by making use of words and thoughts, it is called

‘verbal medium’. It is used most commonly by teachers in classrooms.

The subject matter is made more interesting by giving examples of daily

life. The teacher may draw pictures on blackboard and then explain the

concept more clearly. Sometimes, a teacher may use the method of

storytelling for making the teaching–learning process more effective.

 Inductive-deductive approach: It is very important to understand the

concept first and then use it. While the former can be properly realized

through inductive approach, the deductive approach helps in the latter.

The task of illustrating with example requires the use of both approaches;

hence a teacher should learn to use both inductive and deductive

approaches for development of the skill.

 Proper examples: Various types of examples are used by teachers in

classrooms, but while using these examples some points should be kept in mind like:

o Examples should be relevant to the concept or principle being


o Examples used should be simple, based on the student’s past

experience and according to the maturity level of students.

o An example should be interesting so that it could maintain the

attention, interest and curiosity of students for better understanding.

o Whether a teacher is giving interesting examples or not can be

judged through the overt behaviour of students and overall

classroom environment.

Precautions while using skill of illustration with examples:

 The objectives of the lesson being taught should be kept in mind while

using this skill.

 The illustration used should be related to the main concept or idea.

 The examples used should be according to the maturity level of students.

 Multiple media should be used for explaining the concept.

Examples used by teacher should be interesting and motivating so that

students pay attention.

3.2.5 Advantages of Micro teaching

Micro teaching is very helpful for making the process of teaching more effective and

successful. Here are some advantages of micro teaching:

 Micro teaching it enables teachers to focus on certain areas of teaching and

to view them from different perspectives.

 Micro teaching it increases training-effectiveness using a scaled down teaching

simulation environment, which reduces the complexities of normal classroom

teaching and eliminates the pressure resulting from real classroom settings.

 One major advantage of micro teaching is the provision of immediate feedback

to bring improvement in the teacher’s behaviour.

 The main objective of micro teaching session is to provide the participants

with an environment for practice-based teaching to instil self-evaluative skills.

 It caters to the need of individual differences in teacher training. Each trainee

develops teaching skills at his own pace.

 It employs real teaching situations for developing skills.

 Micro teaching gives instructors an opportunity to be analysed by a small

group audience, and also to observe and comment on other people’s


 It is hardly a substitute for teaching practice, but it offers advantages such as

close supervision, manageable objectives established according to individual

trainee needs and progress, continuous feedback, an unprecedented opportunity

for self-evaluation, immediate guidance in areas of demonstrated deficiency

and the opportunity to repeat a lesson whenever desired.

 Through micro teaching, teachers are able to pursue self-initiated, self-directed

and self-observed growth.

 It is a very useful method for both pre-service and in-service teacher


 Micro teaching offers the advantages of both controlled laboratory environment

and realistic practical experience.

 A micro teaching session is a chance to adopt new teaching and learning


 It is well suited to help teachers identify single concepts, and learn how to

create learning modules to build longer lessons.

 Micro teaching can also be used in research work in various situations related

to teaching.

Disadvantages of Microteaching

The limitations of micro teaching are as follows:

 It is skill-oriented rather than content-oriented. The main emphasis in this

technique is on learning teaching skills and content, which is an important part

of teaching-learning, is given adequate attention.

 It is performed in artificially controlled conditions.

 The main emphasis of microteaching is on mastery of one teaching skill at a

time, whereas actual teaching is a combination of many skills that operate


 It is a time-consuming technique since one trainee practises a skill in about 35


 An effective microteaching technique requires tape records, video tapes and

closed circuit cameras. Thus, it is costly for Indian schools.

 For successful implementation, microteaching requires competent and suitably

trained teacher educators.

 Microteaching alone is not sufficient to attain perfection in teaching. It needs

to be supplemented and integrated with other teaching techniques.

 It cannot be a substitute for real classroom lesson.

ALSO READ: Role and significance of educational technology 

    Blogger Comment
    Facebook Comment


Post a Comment

Please do not spam the inbox