Meaning, Nature, Needs of Educational planning


Meaning, Nature, Needs of Educational planning;

Meaning, Nature, Needs of Educational planning
Educational planning

Educational planning:

Planning includes the possibility of better performance on all jobs. planning is an attempt to shape the future by deliberate action. in the field of educational administration planning ensures more effective decision making and more satisfying outcome. planning in education is an extremely important activity as it fors the basis of all programmes og quantitative and qualitative improvement in education.

India is a democratic, dynamic and developing country. it is engaged in the task of bringing about social, political, economic, cultural and educational development of the national life in a systematic and orderly manner. no country can think of social or economic development without proper planning in education only an educationally advanced country is socially and economically advanced through proper planning. the planning in education is the primary condition to enable a nation to ascend on the ladder of progress.

Planning is purposeful action having certain objectives and end to achieve. these are directed towards the provision of the opportunities to the masses to lead good life; Democratic planning in India centralised but it lays emphasis on decentralised units at village level. the goals of planning and education are similar. both aim at good life of the citizens. planning is both the determinant and the determiner of education while better education leads to better planning, better planning leads to the development in education but in content and quantity. the plans at the national level provide direction and resources to the educationist to bring qualitative and quantitative improvement in education.

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Meaning of educational planning:

Webster's International Dictionary (1981) defines planning as an act or process of making or carrying out plans. a plan is conceptualized as a predetermined strategy, detailed scheme or programme of action related to the accomplishment of an objective. it implies some kind of mental activity during the course of analyzing or laying out a method of achieving something. it focuses on 'what'  'why' and 'how' of achieving some goals. an educational plan refers to efforts on planned and deliberate change to be brought about in the system of education for achieving identified relevant objectives. these changes are visualized in relation to specified objectives and have to be co-ordinated in relation to objectives and conditions in other related aspects, not just in one aspect. they have to be systematically planned also planning actually means the process of setting out in advance a pattern of action to bring about over all changes as viewed by national policies by the closest possible articulation of means and ends.

This means that planning is the process of preparing a set of decisions for action in future directed towards realizing some specific goals by the best possible means.

According to Hagman and Schwartz, ''planning selects among alternatives, explores routes before travel begins and identifies possible or probable outcomes of action before the executive and his organization is committed to any.''
Educational planning has been one of the early instruments of independent governments.

The advancement of theory of planning, has enriched its practice. after the second World War the principle and methods of educational development and planning first development in the Soviet Union were adopted by the Socialist state of Central. Europe before many of them were 'rediscovered' later in the west.

Today,educational planning is an absolute requirement. the complexities of modern technology is society have given rise to the need for planning in education. increasing populations, man-power needs, ecology, decreasing natural resources and haphazard applications of scientific developments require educational planning. to meet these problems, educational planning becomes a necessity and competence becomes mandatory.
it is unavoidable for bringing about a desirable change in the educational organisations for promoting the organisational health- its effectiveness and functional efficiency.

Educational planning is a process utilized by a administrator while performing the role of a leader, decision-maker, change agent and so on. it is a basic management task. it is a means of achieving higher levels of effectiveness. its uniqueness lies in its future-orientation or anticioation mode.

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Nature of educational planning:

The following viewpoints have been utilized by the experts to understand and explain the meaning and nature of planning.

1. Educational planning is describing or defining or determining events, conditions and needs of some future point in time. by anticipating what might be, the level of uncertainty is reduced. it implies forecasting or projections of important factors in education such as number and types of students and expansion of facilities needed for them.

2.Viewpoints on educational planning, stresses that it should also call for interpretation of future's data and its translation into competencies or operational capabilities demanded to maintain effectiveness under the conditions anticipated.

3.educational planning is also perceived as a means of generating relevant present or future goals .

4.Another view point on educational planning considers it as the preparetion phase or a precursor in the decision making process.

5. Educational planning is also perceived as operations optimization or performance improvement. educational planning, in this sense, is to guide the actions of the operations. it must result into standard operating procedures, operations manuals, administrative guidelines or system policies.

6.Educational planning is also considered a kind of contingency anticipation or problem-prevention. in this sense, it means the educational planning should minimise the magnitude of an educational problem likely to be encountered at some future point in time. it also implies, in this sense, that educational planning should spell out the procedures to be followed if some crisis or contingencies arise, for example, planning for maintaoning quality of teaching in case the teachers go on dtrike.

7. Educational planning  may be seen as the management of change or as a part of organizational renewal. MBO, PERT and various other forecasting techniques may be considered ti be a part of the process of educational planning. in this sense, educational planning provides a mechanism, model or a tool for achieving specific objectives of an organization.

8. A particular of view considers educational planning as complexity resolution, a process for co ordination and control. this is very much needed in large complex projects. these complex projects demand a predetermined strategy for the realisation of their goals. educational planning is, in this sense, interpreted as a means of coping with complexity or co-ordination or facets of such projects.

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Needs of educational planning:

1. planning is necessary to ensure success of the enterprise. it takes into consideration the important factors, issues and conditions in education. it requires future objectives, good vision and perception and ability to profit from theory in advance of action. it makes the goals and the chances of failure, and ensures success of the activity.

2. Efficient and effective planning saves time, effort and money. because of clear insight it increases the power of efficient accomplishment of the desired purposes. it is a time saving, an effort saving and a monet-saving activity. it is a fundamental part of the successful administrative activity and a vital step in the educational  enterprise.

3. planning is a good method of solving problems it eliminates the trial and error method of doing things. so, it is indispensable for the best utilization of available resources. it checks wastage and failure and contribute to the smoothness, ease and efficiency of the administrative process.

4.The need for planning arises from the two basic reasons. firstly, education is the means by which society preserves and improves its future value system and the way of life, its knowledge, skills and appreciations, i.e its culture. secondly, the operation of the educational system utilities a large proportion of the country's educated talent and a major part of public expenditure. the educational system, its nature and its ends and means are determined by these things. hence arises the need for planning.

5.planning is necessary to keep pace with the time rapid and far-reaching changes are going on economy, industry, commerce, educational theory and practice, social culture and moral values. educational  process has to keep abreast of these changes and shape itself accordingly, otherwise it will become a dead weight on society's shoulders and prove injurious to its health.
Characteristics of institutional planning.. 

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